is associated most commonly with urinary tract, bloodstream, intra-abdominal, skin, soft tissue, and respiratory tract infections.23. It is useful for cultivating fastidious organisms and for determining the hemolytic capabilities of an organism. often occur in water, sewage, soil and food and may be present in clinical specimens where they can be opportunistic pathogens. 27.2). Colonies are without hemolysis but … Hepatic, biliary and pancreatic disease are also common diseases that are caused by C. freundii. Pathogenic mechanisms expressed by strains of Citrobacter spp. Holt, J.G., et al. and other enteric bacilli occurred in about 25% of patients. Citrobacter spp. Citrobacter: environmental sources and in feces of man and animals Various species can often contaminate un-treated water sources. Citrobacter is currently comprised of nine named species and two genomospecies (identified through DNA hybridization studies): C. amalonaticus, C. braakii, C. farmerii, C. freundii, C. koseri (diversus), C. sedlakii, C. wekmanii, C. youngae, C. gillen (C. freundiigenomospecies 10) and C. murlinae (C. freundiigenomospecies 11), and C. rodentium(not found in humans) Farmer (1999), Holmes (1998). After incubation overnight, the medium is inspected for telltale signs of alpha- or beta-hemolysis. 8 Escherichia coli. develop one or more intracerebral abscesses (Fig. I'm trying to rule out E. coli which I think is beta hemolytic but I'm not sure. Whether the organisms that caused severe septicemia and death in guinea pigs in 1988 (Ocholi et al., 1988) and other disease syndromes in hysterectomy-rederived guinea pigs (Boot and Walvoort, 1986) are C. freundii as originally indicated or C. rodentium is unclear. 1. Strains of Cit. Outbreaks of C. koseri in neonatal intensive care units resulting in sepsis and meningitis, septic arthritis, and skin and soft tissue infections were reviewed by Doran.140 Other focal infections in neonates due to Citrobacter species include bone, pulmonary, and urinary tract infections.140, During the period of 1960 to 1980, 74 cases of meningitis caused by Citrobacter species were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) of the U.S. Public Health Service.141 In 1999, Doran reviewed an additional 56 cases of neonatal meningitis due to Citrobacter species.140 Combining results from the two studies, brain abscess developed in 73 (76%) of 96 patients for whom information was available. The prognosis for meningitis due to Citrobacter spp. are the cause of urinary tract infection (UTI) in less than 3% of adults and children.24,25 In a review of 37 pediatric cases, the mean age was 6.9 years, with a range of 1 month to 18 years.24 Females predominated, and 56% of patients had underlying urinary tract or renal anomalies or neurologic impairment. The lysine decarboxylase reaction allows for separation of the hydrogen sulfide-producing isolates of Citrobacter spp. Although biochemical identification of the newer species can be accomplished through the use of conventional tests, most commercial identification systems do not include all species in their databases. grow readily on ordinary media. Citrobacter spp. Fig. Straight rods, occurring singly and in pairs. 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